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HIV In A Nutshell

HIV in a nutshell

Human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, can target human and cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs) in the advanced stage. In this disease, the progressive of weakened immune system have been created some opportunities for life-threatening diseases like infectious diseases and cancers to emerge and thrive. AIDs are defined as number of CD4+ T cells below 200 cells/µL.

In the absence of current available antiviral treatment approximately half patients develop AIDs in 10 years. The clinical signs of patents with HIV completely depend on the stage of infection. Many people unfortunately have not been aware of their disease until later stages. In the initial stage after being infected, people may not develop any clinical symptoms. However, in later stages, patients with HIV develop initial signs like weight loss, diarrhea, swollen lymph node and cough without any treatment. These patients become susceptible to sever diseases such as tuberculosis and meningitis, bacterial infections and viral-induced cancers such as l Kaposi’s sarcoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and cervical cancer.

The HIV can be transmitted through the body fluids of infected individuals including blood, breast milk, semen and vaginal secretions. Day-to-day contacts from kissing to hugging are not involved in the virus transmission.

Some behaviors will put the healthy people at the risk of being infected with HIV are as follows:

1-Unprotected anal and vaginal sex
2-The shared use of contaminated injecting equipment’s and drug solution for the injection of drugs
3-Unsafe and contaminated blood transfusion, organ transplantation and medical procedures like unsterile cutting and piercing
4-Mother-to-child transmission through breastfeeding and umbilical cord


Image Credits: Jarun Ontakral.

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